About This Website
This web site is produced by a team of writers, editors, illustrators, multimedia producers, information systems specialists, nurses, doctors, and scientists of the Mayfield Clinic and the University of Cincinnati Department of Neurosurgery. Our presence on the internet is a natural extension of Mayfield's longstanding commitment to provide health information to our patients, colleagues, and the public. This site is owned and funded by Mayfield Clinic, 3825 Edwards Road - Suite 300, Cincinnati, Ohio 45209. Phone 513-221-1100.
Medical Disclaimer. The material and content contained on mayfieldclinic.com and its subsidiary websites is for general health information only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The service is presented for the sole purpose of disseminating health information. It is not intended and must not be taken to be the provision or practice of medical, nursing or professional health care advice or services in any jurisdiction. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Our goal is to provide you with the most trustworthy and accurate health information on neurologic conditions affecting the brain and spine. All material on our web site is developed under the direction of the Mayfield Patient Education Committee. Our content is peer reviewed by the physicians, nurse practitioners, and researchers of the Mayfield Clinic and University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute. All material is based on the scientific literature and the collective wisdom of our practicing physicians. The text is supported with illustrations and videos to provide a better understanding of anatomy, conditions, procedures, and treatments. Our content is reviewed annually and dated to ensure it is accurate and up to date. Content created by Mayfield is free from influence by any drug, biotech, medical device, or other company in the healthcare industry.
In addition to following the HON code of ethics, our Mayfield Patient Education Committee has developed additional guidelines and methods to ensure validity and content accuracy that are consistent with the Hi-ethics principles.
- We do not make claims of therapeutic benefit without reasonable support from the published literature, or deliberately provide false or misleading information.
- The development and maintenance of this web site is funded solely by Mayfield Clinic, Inc. We do not accept advertising or sponsored health information content that we know either contains false or misleading claims or promotes ineffective or dangerous products.
- Where we present health information content as the result of clinical experience or scholarly research, we clearly disclose the actual author(s) of the content.
- We have a conflict of interest policy for all authors that is easy for consumers to find, read, and understand. We will disclose all affiliations and financial relationships of authors consistent with our policy.
MayfieldClinic.com does not accept commercial advertising.
We welcome links to Mayfield Clinic’s website(s) - permission is not necessary. However, be aware that our subpages may change at any time without notice. Anyone linking to mayfieldclinic.com must continuously verify links to our subpages.
Entities and individuals linking to mayfieldclinic.com shall not capture our pages, images, or videos within frames, present our content as its own, or otherwise misrepresent our content. Certain information on mayfieldclinic.com may be trademarked, service-marked, or otherwise protected as intellectual property. Protected intellectual property must be used in accordance with state and federal laws and must reflect the proper ownership of the intellectual property.
It is not Mayfield Clinic's standard policy to exchange reciprocal links. Requests for reciprocal links are reviewed based on our editorial policy and appropriateness to our patients and visitors. Mayfield Clinic does not receive fees from your use of links from mayfieldclinic.com to other sites. Mayfieldclinic.com does not endorse sites that link to or from mayfieldclinic.com.
All material appearing on mayfieldclinic.com, and other websites owned and run by the Mayfield Clinic, is copyrighted and cannot be reused without permission. This policy explains the options for using copyrighted material including text, illustrations, and video from our website(s).
Personal Use. You may print a single copy of any of the materials on this site for personal non-commercial use, free of charge and without written permission. You may look at our website online, download information to your computer to read later, or print copies of pages for yourself, your family, or your friends. However, you must not remove any copyright notices from our materials. We reserve all other rights, which means that you must not sell our information, rewrite or modify it, redistribute it, use it on your own website, or use it for any other commercial purpose without our prior written permission.
Commercial Use. mayfieldclinic.com makes its quality health information available for licensing on your Web site, online service, intranet, or in print. Revenue from mayfieldclinic.com licensing activities supports Mayfield Clinic programs, including medical education and research.
If you are interested in licensing mayfieldclinic.com content, contact:
Tom Rosenberger, Vice President of Marketing and Communications firstname.lastname@example.org
Important Note: The Mayfield Clinic Notice of Privacy Practices is a separate document that governs patient privacy.
IP Addresses. There are several types of information we collect. For all visitors to the Service, we collect and log your IP address. An IP address is a number automatically assigned to your computer whenever you access the internet. IP addresses allow computers and servers to recognize and communicate with one another. We collect IP address information to properly administer our system and to gather aggregate information on visitors to our site and how our site is being used, including the pages visitors are viewing. This aggregate information may be shared with advertisers, sponsors and others businesses. To maintain your anonymity, we do not associate IP addresses with records containing personal information. We will use IP address information, however, to personally identify you in order to enforce our legal rights or when required to do so by law enforcement authorities.
Cookies. We also place small data files, called "cookies," in the browser file of your computer's hard drive. These cookies automatically identify your browser to our server whenever you interact with the Service. Most browsers automatically accept these cookies, but you usually can change your browser setting to prevent the acceptance of cookies. In addition, we usually collect the domain name of the server from which you are visiting. This can provide us with information relating to the sources of our traffic. Collecting this information does not allow us to personally identify you.
Registration & Medical History Information. We also collect personal information that you choose to share with us in the registration and medical history portions of the Service. This information may include your name, e-mail address, and your answers to questions. Again, this information is only collected with your permission and may be updated or deleted by you at any time. We collect this information, should you decide to provide it to us, to provide services you've requested.
Surveys. At times, you may be asked to complete survey questions that appear on the Service. If you agree to participate in the survey, you will be asked to review and accept certain additional terms and conditions relating to use of the information you furnish, which may include personally identifiable information. These terms and conditions are in addition to the Privacy Policies set forth in this Agreement, including sharing such personally identifiable information with market research firms with which we have a business relationship.
E-Mail Communications & Newsletters
Our website provides you with the opportunity to receive communications from us. Once you have decided to receive such communications, you may later decide to stop receiving them. To stop receiving communications, you may send an e-mail message to email@example.com.
Information for E-Commerce Transactions
Some areas of the Service may allow you to conduct e-commerce transactions. In connection with these transactions, we collect data necessary to complete the transaction and that is furnished by you. This information may be furnished to a third party in order to facilitate the transaction.
We use general traffic, site usage, and length of stay information in reports to advertisers and firms with which we have a business relationship. This sort of information is shared only on an aggregated basis and does not personally identify you.
The Service is intended for adults age 18 and over. It is not intended for or designed to attract persons under the age of 18. We do not permit registration by, nor do we collect personally identifiable information from, any person we actually know to be under the age of 18.
Changing or Deleting Information
The Service gives you the opportunity to change or delete information that has previously been furnished by you to us. To change such information, you can send an e-mail to us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Our privacy policies apply only to your use of the Service. The Service contains links to other sites, including sites that may indicate a special relationship with us. While we do not disclose personably identifiable information to those operating these linked sites, we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. You should read the privacy policies of each site you visit to determine what information that site may be collecting about you.
Changes to Our Privacy and Security Policies
Just with the other terms and conditions of this Agreement, we may change the terms and conditions of our Privacy Policies at any time by posting revisions on the Service. You agree to review the Privacy Policies portions of this Agreement each time you use the Service so that you are aware of any modifications made to these policies. By accessing or using the Service, you agree to be bound by all of the terms and conditions of the Agreement as posted on the Service at the time of your access or use, including the Privacy Policies then in effect. August, 2001
mayfieldclinic.com is an online information and communications service and internet site (the "Service") provided by Mayfield Clinic. Use of the Service is governed by the terms and conditions of this Agreement. Please read this Agreement carefully before accessing or using the Service. Throughout this Agreement, Mayfield Clinic is referred to as "we" or "us."
General Terms and Conditions
By accessing or using the Service, you agree to be bound by all of the terms and conditions of this Agreement. This Agreement is intended to be fully effective and binding upon you and us. We may modify this Agreement at any time, and you agree that such modifications will be effective immediately upon posting of the modified Agreement on the Service. You agree to review the Agreement posted on the Service each time you use the Service so that you are aware of any modifications made to this Agreement. By accessing or using the Service, you agree to be bound by all of the terms and conditions of the Agreement as posted on the Service at the time of your access or use.
YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT USE OF THIS SERVICE IS AT YOUR OWN RISK AND THAT THE SERVICE AND ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED ON OR PROVIDED THROUGH THE SERVICE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS. YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT THE INFORMATION CONTAINED ON OR PROVIDED THROUGH THIS SERVICE IS INTENDED FOR GENERAL CONSUMER UNDERSTANDING AND EDUCATION ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED TO BE AND IS NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ADVICE. ALWAYS SEEK THE ADVICE OF YOUR PHYSICIAN, NURSE OR OTHER QUALIFIED HEALTH CARE PROVIDER BEFORE YOU UNDERGO ANY TREATMENT OR FOR ANSWERS TO ANY QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE REGARDING A MEDICAL CONDITION. NOTHING CONTAINED ON OR PROVIDED THROUGH THE SERVICE IS INTENDED TO BE OR IS TO BE USED FOR MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT.
You understand and agree that, except for information, products, services or merchandise clearly identified as being supplied by us, we do not operate, control, supply, endorse, warrant or guarantee any information, products, services or merchandise available on the Service or through the internet generally in any way. You also understand and agree that we cannot and do not warrant or guarantee that files available for downloading through the Service will be free of infections or viruses, worms, Trojan horses or other code that contains contaminating or destructive properties. You understand and agree that you are solely responsible for implementing sufficient precautions, procedures and checkpoints to satisfy your own requirements for the accuracy of data input and output, and for maintaining a means external to the Service for the reconstruction of any lost data. We do not assume any responsibility for the loss of any information, data or other materials resulting from your use of the Service.
YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT WE DO NOT MAKE ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, REPRESENTATIONS OR ENDORSEMENTS OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR NONINFRINGEMENT, OR ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE) WITH REGARD TO THE SERVICE, OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY INFORMATION, PRODUCT, SERVICE, MERCHANDISE OR OTHER MATERIAL PROVIDED ON OR THROUGH THE SERVICE. WE DO NOT WARRANT OR GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, CORRECTNESS, TIMELINESS, OR USEFULNESS OF ANY INFORMATION, PRODUCTS, SERVICES, MERCHANDISE OR OTHER MATERIAL PROVIDED THROUGH THE SERVICE OR ON THE INTERNET GENERALLY. WE MAKE NO WARRANTY OR GUARANTEE THAT THE SERVICE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, OR ERROR FREE. IN NO EVENT WILL WE BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANYONE ELSE FOR ANY DECISION MADE OR ACTION TAKEN BY YOU OR ANYONE ELSE IN RELIANCE UPON THE INFORMATION CONTAINED ON OR PROVIDED THROUGH THE SERVICE. The Service is presented by us for the sole purpose of disseminating general health information for public benefit. THE SERVICE AND ANY INFORMATION PROVIDED ON THE SERVICE ARE NOT INTENDED TO CONSTITUTE, AND YOU AGREE THAT THEY DO NOT CONSITUTE, THE PRACTICE OF OR FURNISHING OF MEDICAL, NURSING, OR PROFESSIONAL HEALTH CARE ADVICE, DIAGNOSIS, CONSULTATION OR TREATMENT OR SERVICES IN ANY JURISDICTION. THE SERVICE AND ANY INFORMATION PROVIDED ON OR THROUGH THE SERVICE IS NOT TARGETED TO USERS IN ANY PARTICULAR LOCALITY, NOR ARE THEY INTENDED TO CONSTITUTE, AND YOU AGREE THAT THEY DO NOT CONSTITUTE, DOING BUSINESS IN ANY JURISDICTION OR THE SOLICITATION OF BUSINESS ANYWHERE BY US OR ANY OF OUR RESPECTIVE PARENT, SUBSIDIARY OR AFFILIATED COMPANIES OR ORGANIZATIONS, NOR DO THEY CONSTITUTE ANY CONTACTS WITH ANY JURISDICTION OUTSIDE OF THE STATE OF OHIO.
YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT IN NO EVENT SHALL WE BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY OTHER USER OF THE SERVICE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE, OR ANY OTHER MONETARY OR OTHER DAMAGES, FEES, FINES, PENALTIES, LOSS OF REVENUE OR BUSINESS OR LIABILITIES ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING IN ANY WAY TO THIS SERVICE, OR SITES ACCESSED THROUGH THIS SERVICE, AND/OR CONTENT OR INFORMATION PROVIDED ON OR THROUGH THE SERVICE. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR DISSATISFACTION WITH THE SERVICE IS TO STOP USING THE SERVICE.
You agree to indemnify us and any of our parent or subsidiary companies or organizations, and any of our successors, assigns or licensees, together with any of their respective officers, directors and employees, against any damages, losses, liabilities, judgments, costs or expenses (including reasonable attorneys' fees and costs) arising out of a claim by a third party relating to your use of the Service, or any breach or violation of this Agreement or any other term or condition contained on the Service. In the event we determine, in our sole and absolute discretion, that you have breached any of your obligations under this Agreement, then, in addition to and not in lieu or limitation of any other right or remedy we may have, we may advise you that you have violated this Agreement; delete or remove any communications or content furnished or posted by you to the Service; discontinue your registration and remove you as a registered member; block your access to the Service; notify and/or send communications or content to and cooperate with applicable law enforcement authorities; and/or take any other action we deem appropriate. You agree that this Agreement is entered into between you and us in the State of Ohio, United States of America, and is performed within the State of Ohio and governed by and shall be construed in all respects under the laws of the State of Ohio, exclusive of its choice of law or conflict of laws provisions. In any claim or action by you directly or indirectly arising under this Agreement or related to the Service, you and we each irrevocably agrees to submit to the exclusive personal jurisdiction of the Ohio State District Court or if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction, then you and we each irrevocably agree to submit to the exclusive personal jurisdiction of the United States Court for the District of Ohio, and whichever of those two courts has jurisdiction, you and we each waives any jurisdictional, venue, or inconvenient forum objections to such court. If any of the provisions of this Agreement are held by a court or other tribunal of competent jurisdiction to be not enforceable, then such provisions shall be limited or eliminated to the minimum extent necessary so that this Agreement shall otherwise remain in full force and effect. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between you and us relating to the subject matter hereof and supersedes and merges herein any prior promises, agreements, or understanding between you and us relating to any of the subject matters of this Agreement. This Agreement may not be modified, in whole or in part, except as described elsewhere in this Agreement. Anything contained on the Service inconsistent with or conflicting with the terms of this Agreement is superseded by the terms of this Agreement. The marks "mayfieldclinic.com," "Mayfield," "Mayfield Clinic," "MayfieldSpine.com," and "MayfieldImaging.com," are marks of Mayfield Clinic. The materials on the Service are copyrighted by us and/or other applicable rights holders. You may download and reprint a single copy of the materials from the Service for your own personal, noncommercial use only, provided you include all applicable notices and disclaimers. Any other use of the materials is strictly prohibited without our prior written permission and the permission of the applicable rights holder(s).
Notice of Privacy Practices
This notice describes how medical information about you may be used and disclosed and how you can get access to this information. Please review it carefully.
We are required by law to maintain the privacy of your protected health information and to provide you with this notice. It explains Mayfield's privacy practices with regard to your medical information (also referred to as protected health information) and how we may use and disclose your protected health information for treatment, payment and for health care operations, as well as for other purposes that are permitted or required by law. You have certain rights regarding the privacy of your protected health information, and we also describe them in this notice. We are required to abide by the terms of the notice currently in effect.
Ways in Which We May Use and Disclose Your Protected Health Information
The following paragraphs describe different ways that we use and disclose your protected health information. We have provided an example for each category, but these examples are not meant to be exhaustive.
We will use and disclose your protected health information to provide, coordinate, or manage your health care and any related services. For example, if you are being treated for a back condition, we may disclose your information to a physical therapist in order to coordinate your care.
We will use and disclose your protected health information to obtain payment for the health care services we provide you. For example, we may include information with a bill to a third-party payer that identifies you, your diagnosis, procedures performed, and supplies used in rendering the service.
Health Care Operations.
We will use and disclose your protected health information to support the business activities of The Mayfield Clinic. For example, we may use medical information about you to review and evaluate our treatment and services or to evaluate our staff's performance while caring for you. Other operations include business management, licensing, and teaching. Since education is an important part of our Mission, we may have students, residents, and fellows involved in your care and treatment. In addition, we may disclose your health information to third party business associates, who perform services such as billing, consulting, transcription services, etc., for our practice. In all cases, we require these business associates to appropriately safeguard the privacy of your information.
Other Ways We May Use and Disclose Your Protected Health Information Appointment Reminders and Health Related Benefits or Services.
We may use and disclose your protected health information to provide appointment reminders or give you information about treatment alternatives or other health care services that we offer.
Others Involved in Your Care.
We will use and disclose your protected health information to a family member, a relative, a close friend, or any other person you identify that is involved in your medical care or payment for care.
Generally, we will seek your authorization to use your health information for research purposes. However, sometimes you may not be available to give authorization, such as when our research involves a review of prior care and treatment. In these situations, we may seek approval from an Institutional Review Board that has reviewed the research proposal and established protocols to ensure the privacy of your health information.
We may use and disclose your protected health information for worker's compensation or similar programs that provide benefits for work-related injuries or illness.
We will obtain your authorization for any use or disclosure of your protected health information for marketing except if the communication is in the form of a face-to-face communication made to you or a promotional gift from us of nominal value.
We may contact you as part of a fund-raising effort to further our Mission.
Consistent with applicable law, we may disclose health information to organ procurement organizations or related organizations for the purpose of tissue donation and transplant.
As Required by Law.
We may use and disclose your protected health information when required to by federal, state or local law, including reporting wounds, injuries and crimes.
Public Health Activities.
We may use and disclose your protected health information to public health or legal authorities charged with preventing or controlling disease, injury, or disability. We will make appropriate reports if we suspect abuse, neglect or domestic violence. We will also disclose information to coroners, medical examiners, or funeral directors, consistent with applicable law, to carry out their duties.
We may release your protected health information if you are a member of the military as required by armed forces services, and also as necessary for national security, health/safety or intelligence activities.
Your Health Information Rights
Although your medical record is the physical property of The Mayfield Clinic, the information belongs to you. You have the right to:
A Paper Copy of This Notice.
You have the right to receive a paper copy of this notice upon request. You may obtain a copy by asking our registrar at your next visit or by calling and asking us to mail you a copy.
Inspect and Copy.
In most cases, you have the right to inspect and copy the protected health information that we maintain about you in our designated record set for as long as we maintain that information, but this request must be in writing. Please see the registrar or call us for the appropriate form. We will respond to you within 30 days of receipt of your request. If the information is stored off-site, we are allowed up to 60 days to respond, but must inform you of this delay. In certain situations, we may deny your request. If so, we will inform you, in writing, our reasons for the denial and your right to have the denial reviewed. We may charge you a fee for the costs of copying, mailing or other supplies used in fulfilling your request.
You have the right to request that we amend your medical information that you believe is inaccurate or incomplete. Your must make your request in writing. Please see the registrar or call us for the appropriate form. We will respond within 60 days of receipt of your request. We are not obligated to make all requested amendments, but we will give each request careful consideration.
You have the right to request a restriction or limitation on how we use and disclose your protected health information. We will consider your request but are not legally required to accept it. If we accept your request, we will put any limits in writing and abide by them, except in emergency situations.
Request Confidential Communications.
You have the right to request how we communicate with you to preserve your privacy. For example, you may request that we contact you only at your work number, or by mail at a special address or postal box. Your request must be made in writing. We are not required to agree to your restriction request but will attempt to accommodate reasonable requests when appropriate.
An Accounting of Disclosures.
You have the right to request a list of disclosures of your health information we have made outside of our practice that were not for treatment, payment or health care operations. Your request must be in writing and must state the time period for the requested information. You may not request information for any dates prior to April 14, 2003 (the compliance date for the federal regulation) nor for a period of time greater than six years (our legal obligation to retain the information). Please see the registrar or call us for the appropriate form. We will respond within 60 days of receiving your request. We will provide the first list to you at no charge, but if you make more than one request in the same year, we will charge you a reasonable fee for each additional request.
File a Complaint.
If you believe that we have violated your medical information privacy rights, or you disagree with a decision we made about access to your protected health information, you may file a complaint with our Privacy Officer or directly to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. There will be no retaliation for your filing a complaint.
Mayfield Brain & Spine
3825 Edwards Road - Suite 300
Cincinnati, OH 45209
Office for Civil Rights
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Room 509F HHH Building
Washington, DC 20201
Uses or Disclosures Not Covered Uses or disclosures of your protected health information not covered by this notice or the laws that apply to us may only be made with your written authorization. You may revoke such authorization in writing at any time and we will no longer disclose health information about you for the reasons stated in your written authorization. Disclosures made in reliance on the authorization prior to the revocation are not affected by the revocation.
Changes to This Notice
We reserve the right to change the terms of this notice and our privacy practices at any time. Any changes will apply to the protected health information we already have. Before we make an important change to our practices, we will promptly change this notice and post a new notice in each office's registration area. You can also request a copy of this notice at any time by contacting the Privacy Officer listed above. You may also view a copy of this notice on our website: www.mayfieldclinic.com.
For More Information
If you have questions or would like additional information, you may contact us at the address listed above, or at (513) 221-1100 or (800)325-7787. Effective Date: April 14, 2003
Physicians are patient advocates, so any potential conflict of interest is a concern to all of us at Mayfield. We try to avoid potential conflicts but some are unavoidable and others are desirable for the patient. For example, a surgeon’s decision to recommend an operation rather than a non-operative approach can represent a financial conflict of interest even though the surgery is the best treatment option. Ownership in treatment or diagnostic facilities may also represent a potential conflict of interest. Participation by surgeons in the research and development of equipment and devices implanted into the body, such as spinal instrumentation and heart stents, represent additional potential conflicts of interest.
We have some of these types of relationships and believe they benefit our patients. For example, we have developed a spine surgery center, a free-standing MRI center and a radiosurgery center. These serve our patients in many ways. Our imaging center provides a seamless method of registration, processing and reporting of image results back to us. Our spine surgery center is a state-of-the- art facility with specialized spine equipment and staff, a soothing environment and superior service. Our radiosurgery center provides sophisticated radiation treatments and expertise that are not available anywhere else in the region. Each of these services is provided at rates comparable to competitive services. Nonetheless, they can be viewed as potential conflicts.
Since its founding in 1937, the Mayfield Clinic has established a proud record of fulfilling its mission of patient care, research and teaching and has established a world leadership role in the high tech field of neurosurgery. As such, your surgeon may devote some of his time to traveling and training other surgeons in advanced surgical techniques or the use of implants. In doing so, he may be compensated for his efforts. Your surgeon also may use implants or devices in your surgery that were manufactured by companies for which the surgeon has done research and received some compensation. For example, the Mayfield Headrest, a device to stabilize the head during brain surgery, is used in practically every neurosurgery operating room throughout the world, and was developed by our founder, Dr. Frank Mayfield. These relationships could be viewed as potential conflicts, even though your surgeon believes these are superior alternatives to other approaches.
Please discuss these issues with your surgeon if you have questions or concerns regarding any of these matters. A complete list of the Mayfield Clinic’s related financial relationships, or those of your specific Mayfield physician, is available upon request.
last updated > 03.2013